On Moon as Space Base
The Home Page of T.R.U.TH Website here is a picture of a Space Base, marked as the Moon SpaceBase of 2059. Actually the timing of the construction of a Moon Space Base within the next half a century is quite reasonable. Although it would not be a large city, or even a large village, with buildings as shown inside the space dome, it should nevertheless be possible to support a team of scientists and engineers of say 500 to 1000 members strong, each given a 2 yearly working shift. Only certain specialized space scientists and engineering constructors need to be sent to the base, because 95% of research and design work for the Space Base could be done on Earth.
The advantages of a Moon Base are many in these early years of human effort to pioneer the cosmic environment. Firstly a strong and permanent dome or a basic living and working quarter may be built on solid Moon ground for permanent services and for purpose of long term investments. Such constructions should be much stronger for protection against damages by meteorites compared with any Space Stations, and much easier to repair even if damaged. Works carried out on Moon ground should be much easier than in the free space, because resources such as human physical demands and the special equipments needed, as well as for the time and efforts required to carry out any building or repairing jobs should be much less. It is of course very important to save time and resources in order to make space enterprises more safe, more efficient and cost effective.
Hello! What planet is this? It's the back of our beautiful Moon as seen by the Space-Probe Galileo on its way to Jupiter. The rusty colour indicates materials of ferrous compound on the surface of Moon.
The Moon is locked in orbit with always one side facing earth. Perhaps it is caused by different magnetic properties on one side of its body.
The Moon Space Base could be a reality in the next 10 years, if air and water could be partially manufactured as well as recycled on location inside the Space Base. As the international communities are willing to join efforts in space explorations already, it is now possible to pool together all kind of resource for the vital research needed. Whosoever eventually help to bring about the success of a permanent Space Port would be making possible the first solid foundation for a future civilization in space, and should be remembered for as long as there are human descendants in the universe. This could mean probably a human presence in space for some billions of years to come. Surely this first solid foundation on moon is the inevitable first step in the entire story of manís sustained existence in the cosmos.
The possibility exists that there could be ice at the Poles of the Moon. The Moonís temperatures are understandably rather similar to those of our own planet. Should there be any underground water sources, the underground waters or ice could still be trapped there, especially at the Poles of the Moon. As the Moon orbits our Earth along the Ecliptic, its Poles do not turn on its axis. Once a month the back half of the Moon is hot, much hotter than our Equator, and exposed to strong radiation from the Sun when the Moon is nearest to the Sun. This is the period of New Moon viewing from Earth, but some parts of the Moon Poles facing Earth are not exposed to Sun. If during this period the waters underground at the hidden parts of the Poles do not evaporate and escape, then they should always remain as underground running water or solid ice there. Meanwhile, any surface ice or water should have long evaporated and disappeared.
Despite the remote possibility of finding underground waters on Moon in the distant future. Presently the space enterprises should carry out research on Earth to extract oxygen and hydrogen out of the compounds of rocks, quarts, earth, sand and all possible minerals, which are similar to the materials on Moon. In nature there should be everywhere great abundance of compounds containing Hydrogen, Oxygen and Carbon, but not always in liquid or gaseous forms. We know little about the Moon, but here on Earth there are thousands of minerals and ores which contain oxygen and hydrogen in them. Most compounds of the following major groups of minerals on Earth, the star dusts, have oxygen elements and some have hydrogen in them, for instance:- oxides, hydroxides, carbonates, phosphates, silicates, and more. These minerals and rock compounds are everywhere all over our home planet..... An example of the idea is the making of the organic substance Urea. Urea is a typical human or animal by product, which is used as an important fertilizer. In 1828 Friedrich Wöhler discovered the artificial formation of urea using inorganic chemicals from ammonia and cyanic acid. Wöhler shocked the world by showing it possible to make organic material from inorganic chemicals..... Anyhow the idea may seem a bit pre-mature but the chances of finding oxides, hydroxides, silicates.... and other similar mineral compounds on Moon, or other Solar planets are excellent (it would seem rather extravagant to send water to Mars, the next target for human landing, or to search for the unlikelihood of water source in a strange planet. Even here on earth there is no guarantee that water can be found in the desert areas when you really need it, how are astronauts going to walk the unknown planet, bearing heavy gears under airless conditions, hostile terrains, strong radiation and extreme temperatures in search of water, even if it is known to exist). The main idea is, if such similar minerals or inorganic solid compounds on Moon may be used to extract those vital elements necessary for living, then the main obstacles for sustained living and working on the Moon Base are overcome. The consumption of water per human should be rather limited because a good percentage of it may be the recycled or recovered from the waste. .......
The energy needed for the extraction of hydrogen and oxygen is obviously the powerful solar energy, collected with grouped lenses or mirrors, or other means. Extremely strong solar energy should be always available on Moon as there is no atmosphere, especially during the New Moon period when the Moon is so much nearer to the Sun. However, the limited use of additional nuclear energy as a supplement may even be considered eventually. The next step is to recycle all the human waste, including fluids and Carbon Dioxide gases. Then the final and very important step would be to grow and manufacture foods on the Moon Space Base. This too would depend on the supply of hydrogen and oxygen. Therefore, the technology to extract these vital elements from materials on Moon would be very important indeed. But once the technology is well established, then the same technology could be used on Mars or on other planets as well. In fact, the substances, which make life possible, such as compounds of Carbon, Oxygen and Hydrogen should be readily available across the entire universe. Nature has hidden for us precious resources in solid minerals as well as in Solar energy, which would someday become our fuels and our food for survival as we live and travel in space. Because as long as we can extract Oxygen and Hydrogen from their mineral compounds using available solar energy everywhere in the cosmos, then water and air can be manufactured on location in space. Water can be used to cultivate vegetables and vegetables can be used for human consumption and to breed vegetarian animals as human foods too.... If by some billion-billion to one chance that we, the humans, happen to be miraculously the only intelligent or the more intelligent beings in the universe, and we are left to wonder why are there so few of us in that boundless universe. Then perhaps this is just at the very beginning of an awesome future in which all things and all energies in the vast universe are meant for us to use, to enjoy and to explore. In any case, whether we are alone or not in the universe, sooner or later we would have to find a way to begin exploring the use of the energies and materials available for our extended cosmic life....
The building materials for the Moon Base may consist of mainly Moon dirt or Moon rocks found on location, reinforced with some specially designed cement mixture and light metal structuring or nuts and bolts made of aluminum alloys, sent from earth. The temperature of highly concentrated Sunlight should be high enough to melt many types of Moon sand or quarts, which may be formed into glass sheets or used as the main building blocks. Also large quantities of solar cell batteries mounted on strong but lightweight aluminum alloys may be sent to the base cost effectively, which could be used for drilling, sawing, cutting, digging and all kinds of communication and engineering work.
However, despite the possibility of building strong and durable constructions, such constructions are still subject to the threat of meteorite impacts. Therefore, the Space Base could be designed like a submarine with air lock compartments and automatic hatch doors with effective sealing in case of meteorite impacts. However, such impacts could only damage the buildings, or the installations and probably some equipment, because the important working and living quarters for the astronauts (Moonnauts) would be built safely underground to avoid meteorite impacts and strong radiation. ... Also during voyage to the Moon the radiation at the Van Allen belts may present some problems. But not enough actual experiments have been carried out yet, perhaps there are some positions of the belts where radiations are weaker and through which the space crafts may pass with least danger.
The alternative means would be to design a special craft with sufficient radiation shielding. This special craft, let's call it the "Moon-Ferry", being a heavy ship, could be sent up to space in pieces and assembled there, just as the existing International Space Station (ISS) has been assembled. This Moon-Ferry is designed to be docked and refueled at the ISS, to ferry passengers to and from between the ISS and the Moon. So, in this case, the ISS, which is as big as a football field, would serve as a Rest Post, a Hotel, Refueling Stop as well as an embarkation station for the Moon-Ferry, and later, also for embarkation to other solar planets traffics. This special Moon-Ferry could be designed to land directly on Moon, as it would float in free space, and it would have a much less gravitation to overcome on landing and taking off from the Moon surface each trip (1/6 gravitation of the Earth). However, should the ferrying craft be too heavy, then other means and methods of landing and taking off to and fro between the Moon-Ferry and the Moon surface could be considered, such as the landing craft used in the Apollo voyages. Meanwhile, sufficient building materials and anti-radiation panels, as well as construction equipments could be rocketed and deposited on some chosen spot on Moon by unmanned space rockets. Then the first group of engineers may arrive to built the first radiation shelter on Moon. From this shelter deeper excavations could begin for a safe living quarter, say 100 feet, or more, below the Moon surface.... All the technologies mentioned are available today, and international participations of resource are possible. Only a political will is needed! ... Mankind is already inside the threshold of that eternal life in cosmic time and boundary, such large space projections must be carried out sooner or later at any rate. Who knows, they may yet save mankind from self-destruction here on earth, because those huge makers and sellers of space age weapons, who sometimes live prosperously and other times precariously, could probably divert their fate and their resources to international support for common interests in space conquest.... .
The Moon has probably cooled down ages ago and its core is probably now entirely solid. If that was the case, then very deep excavations underground could be used as working and living quarters. To stretch a bit, someday a tunnel may be drilled all the way through the moon using automatic drilling machine powered by solar energy and an inductive monorail train system built and powered also by solar energy with intermediate stops, for which a little village is built to house the residents on moon and the inter-planetary travelers with guaranteed safety from meteorite impacts and radiations. Ö In any case, the temperatures on Moon for living should be much more palatable compared with the temperatures of Venus or Mars, and of course Jupiterís satellite, because the Moon is chained to our Earth and together they move in more or less the same distance from the Sun.... At any rate, I consider That space travel to any planet within the solar system is more than fictional in the predictable future. However, there are just a couple of basic requirements that needs to be anticipated and attended to :
a) Excavation: No matter which planet we go to, the local environmental conditions on the planetary surface would not be quite suitable for living. The human visitor must excavate to create a safe and controllable living quarter at certain depth inside the planet.
b) Air, food and drink : If air, water and organic things could be created from minerals and inorganic matters, then we are in business for space tourism anywhere in the solar system. Accumulated fuel waste, food waste and human waste brought to the moon are all carbohydrate compounds. They can be easily conserved, recycled and oxidized to give carbon-dioxide for photosynthesis of vegetarian food cultivations on moon.
c) One more small thing needs to be attended to, which is the rocket fuels. Perhaps just use solid oxygen and hydrogen. But once that is made, then our Moon Base may be used as the stepping stone for Mars. Mars may be used for taking off to Jupiter's satellite Europa, and Europa would be the next refueling station for flying to Saturn and so on.... Of course, for the long distance journey, such a to Mars or Saturn, some of the prime cosmonaut candidates probably could be those who are already living with an artificial heart machine. Because a computer regulated heart beat and blood pressure could be just what's needed for the astronauts to hibernate (like a winter bear) for the long journey. For instance the heart beat could be reduced to one beat per minute, and for every 100 beats the machine would speed up for a few beats to allow the kidney to cleanse the blood (or partially cleansed in the machine). Perhaps someday medical technology might be so advanced that astronauts could use a heart machine during the journey only, and put back or connect his own heart back again after his return to earth. This way the air and foods during the journey could be reduced to minimum. .... Piece of cake! Isn't it?.. Just think that all the technologies are already within our reach! Only a political will is needed.
d) At this point let me quote from the conclusion of Contents Page # 24 "Additional points and closing notes" as follows"-
"... 10) In conclusion, someday in the distant future people on earth would look back in history and regard 21st century as the start of the Age of Great Cosmological Reality (AGCR). By this terminology I mean to say that human civilization has completed two initial stages of readiness required for AGCR. Firstly, human science has understood already or has at least found a practical and realistic understanding for the fundamentals of cosmological phenomena, which include the nature of elementary mass-energy exchange, the expansion of universe as well as the entire structure of the universe. Secondly, the human has acquired enough practical knowledge to start traveling to and fro the reasonably distant solar planets, such a Jupiter or Saturn. This means that the earthlings are not confined on home ground any more, and have learned enough to start making a real living in the jungle of cosmic community. This must happen sooner or later! If the project is too big for one nation, a global consortium may be formed with shares or stocks of investments owned by all big and small nations. This may sound like science fiction or super-nature, but it's not!... It's our approaching future, which is already in sight! OK... Let's explain....
The Quantum Physics are explaining very well so far the very fundamentals of mass and energy with great practical results. The expansion of universe has been confirmed by combined scientific observations now called "The Accelerating Universe". This leaves no other choice but the fact that the speed of light can be exceeded, because at 13-14 billion light years the receding galaxies are already moving at the speed of light, yet they are still speeding away faster than before! It's rather unlikely that something might stop the colossal galaxies from crossing over the light speed. That also means there is a limit to the observable universe. This in turn leaves us little choice but to consider the Theory of Regenerating Universe. I think Professor Hawking's prediction in 1980 was right. He predicted not only that a Theory of Everything would come into existence, but also that it would leave little for theoretical physicists like himself to do. Except for the real origin of gravity (which is still unexplained except in these web pages), this means that the practical and realistic understanding of both the microcosmic and the macrocosmic nature are possible, if not already at hand, leaving little for the theoretical physicist to do. Therefore the completion of the first stage of readiness is already within sight...
Now for the second stage, to really travel for months or years in space and start making a life among the cosmological community, one needs to fulfill the following basic conditions for space travel:-
i) Human physical adaptation for distant space travel :-
a; Slowing down heart beats or hibernation during long distance space voyages for conservation of food and energies may be needed. Very soon experiments can be carried out on prime mates (or monkeys) using computer controlled artificial hearts or heart by-pass. The human hibernation under controlled environment by computer is therefore possible with available technology..
b; Computer controlled dripping of liquid nourishment is also possible with existing technology.
ii) Basic requirements for space flight :-
a; Air and water re-circulations from wastes in spaceship are possible with available technologies, or already in use.
b; High nutrition foods and medicines may be stored in sufficient quantities in space ship for months or years.
c; Space ship fuels and other human foods or medicines may be sent in accompanying ships (or to location) for rendezvous in space.
d; Specially designed anti-radiation space shuttle, or special removable radiation shields for attachment to spaceship, may be sent up and parked at a large space station such as ISS for missions to Moon, Mercury and Venus.
iii) For living and working on planets:-
a; Oxygen, Hydrogen and Carbon molecules or atoms, etc., are not just constituents of organic matters, they are also constituents of in-organic substances (minerals), which are readily available everywhere in the cosmos. These chemicals may be extracted from inorganic compounds for conversion to many usages, e.g. food, water and fuel, with already known technologies (chemical process or electrolysis, etc., etc..). Don't forget, even if water is found on Mars or Jupiter's Europa, the chances are that it won't be pure drinking or cooking water and could be deadly poisonous. Besides, you would probably exhaust your own supplies of food and water in negotiating the unknown terrain to reach the source, if you do get there in one piece! At any rate, only when humans are able to decompose inorganic compounds extensively and recompose them into organic foods, air and water can it be said that we have conquered space, because then we would be able to go and live in designed shelters or under ground quarters with controlled environments in solar planets such as Mars.
b; Energy needed for chemical conversions are available in solar radiations. Solar energy may also be used for work on tunneling underground living shelters, and for melting down and casting mineral blocks needed for building air-tight and anti-radiation constructions above ground.
c; Solar energy may be used in building air strips or rails for spaceship take-off. As for landing space-crafts similar designs like those used in large air-craft carriers at sea may also be considered.
c; Solar energy may be used to cultivate carbohydrate foods (animals and vegetations) on planets with locally extracted or recycled oxygen, hydrogen and carbon.
d, When more energy is needed, someday a set of specially designed or small nuclear power generator, such as those used in nuclear submarines, can be sent in parts and assembled in location. Once the generator is in operation, shipments of powerful but light weight nuclear fuel can be ferried to location continuously. More foods or medicines or construction equipments may be sent to location on demand by separate space ships.
iv) The return trip:-
a; The locally extracted oxygen or hydrogen products may be used as rocket fuel for return trips.
b; Alternatively, space ships may be designed to refuel or to attach and detach removable fuel tanks in flight so that fuel tanks may be sent to location for rendezvous...
All above technologies are theoretically available today. Computer control also prevents mistakes and automates the said technologies. There is no need to look for available source of water on solar planets. Consequently, to go as far as Saturn and live there for decades is fully within the capacity of today's human civilization. This is our coming future, which is so close that it's almost on top of you already! ... " So now, how about risking a buck or two on some stocks for my Saturnian Enterprise?
On the left is the news paper cutting of an advertisement in 1955 for sale of $1 per Acre of land on Moon by InterPlanetary Development Corporation. Should have bought a few cents worth for my future vacation house
Taking off from Moon to home planet Earth and to other planets should be relatively cost effective too, because the gravitational pull is much less compared with that on Earth. Once a runway for landing is built on Moon then the space shuttles may just glide onto the MoonBase with economy and safety (see Home Page picture). The foods, water, compressed air, oxygen, medicines and fuels kept in Space Station, such as ISS, and on the MoonBase may be used to rendezvous between the station and the shuttles as emergency supply for both facilities. Smaller packages of supplies may be sent, using cheaper rockets into various orbits for mid-space retrievals. Our MoonBase can serve as the perfect station for change of transport, and a port of anchor for supply and refuel as well as for general repairs of equipments in the great ocean of cosmic space, for the future inter-planetary journeys to Mars and to the satellites of Jupiter.
The combined observation between Moon and Earth could be automatically synchronized, computerized and programmed to pin point the exact distances of the nearer solar systems in the Milky Galaxy, and to search for other inhabitable planetary systems. Probably within a hundred years from now the distant planets of our solar system, such as Uranus or Pluto, probably could all be used to observe in conjunction with Earth for the exact measurement and detection of the much more distant solar systems, or galaxies, even to prove the exact rate of universal expansion, which has very much to do with the fate of all things in the universe. Of course, numerous other research jobs may be carried out also, such as growing silicon crystals or other scientific and medical products, once a permanent Space Base is established on Moon. The Moon SpaceBase is a must, because it is just the experimental Base for future travels to other solar planets. Yet, such a construction on Moon could have a working life of some thousands of years, because other than the dangers from meteorite impacts, there is no atmosphere to corrode and destroy it, not even when temperatures fluctuate greatly. So once an effort is made to construct something on Moon, that construction should last millenniums.
Just a few days ago, the first space tourist millionaire Mr. Tito has made history. He succeeded in paying for his trip to the Russian Space Station and returned to Earth in one piece. Mr. Tito paid US$ 20 millions for his ticket, which includes food and services delivered by spaceships to the Station for his pleasure. But this is only the very crude stage of space touring. Even the ISS Station is nowhere near complete. When the Station is finished and tours are properly organized, the space shuttles could be converted to carry say easily 50 passengers or more, instead of carrying heavy equipment as they are doing now. If the tour to the ISS would cost each passenger say US$ one million, the space touring business would still be a pretty nice business, because the cost of fuel, foods and discarded equipment parts should not cost that much. Yet, a similar trip to the Moon should be much more interesting but really would not be much more expensive because the time, food, fuel and equipment required are almost the same. Of course a landing strip must be built for the shuttles to land on Moon.
The Moon SpaceBase tour could be by far much nicer and more meaningful tourist destination in the future. The Moon has some gravitation though only one sixth of that on Earth. How lovely! With some aid of simple gadgets you can almost fly or walk, perhaps even swim in Moon-space, as you like. At any rate, comparing to mid-space stations it should be much more suitable for the tourists who are used to the gravitational pull of Earth. Mr. Tito would not have vomited on Moon, and would be thrilled to buy another ticket. Certainly I would! Why? The living quarters, perhaps Hotels, would be more spacious and better equipped, even toilets should be more interesting and of course cheaper. There are Moon Walk to do, Moon Vehicles to drive, Moon Craters, and in future, Moon Museum to visit ( There could even be "Museum of Earth Civilization on Moon", in which precious relics or artifacts of Earth civilization are stored on Moon for protection against bacteria attack and weather corrosions ). You can collect Moon rocks and leave your own souvenirs on Moon, including perhaps someday your own out-of-service self, which would be preserved by nature for your 100th generation offspring to come to visit....
This is a feat any historic pharaoh of Egypt would definitely admire. Actually if the pharaohs had had any assistance from the extraterrestrials in their construction of the pyramids, then it is possible that a couple of mummies might yet be found somewhere on Moon, in almost fresh conditions, of course! If there are no mummies found on Moon, then either they have been taken away, or no aliens had ever visited the earth... At any rate, if any extraterrestrials had ever visited earth, they must have visited Moon as well, in order to charge up more solar energy, or to use Moon as a stepping stone. In that case, they must have left some foot prints, which should be still there. On the other hand, if they had not visited Moon, then they obviously could not have visited earth .... Come to think of it, the Moon could yet be of great use in the futuristic human life science for the next couple of million years. Somewhere near the poles of the side of Moon, which is directly facing our earth, an excavation could be made to store the human remains for people who are rich enough to wish to be kept there or for a higher purpose of science. The poles of this side of Moon should have the lowest temperatures and the least radiations on Moon. Also it is more convenient to watch the door with a earth based telescope ... Who knows! There could even be good money in the idea! Surely it would create competition to the present business of preserving corpses in dry ice.
Meanwhile after your return to Earth, you could just look up and watch the spot you have visited as you sit on your front porch or garden, and relate it to your grand children their grandpaís adventures on Moon. There must be many more people, like Mr. Tito, or even some important politicians and scientists, or other people with resources, who should probably go to the Moon for health reasons too. The environments on Moon should be completely free of bacteria. So you wonít have Pneumonia or Influenza after your arrival. The Moon is probably the ideal spot for sanatorium purposes, such as fast curing of tuberculosis and for surgery without anti-septic. The reduced gravitation of the Moon is probably beneficial to certain health conditions as well. So, if we could save some important human lives, or preserve some valuables on Moon indefinitely, not to mention the attainments of invaluable space science, then what would be the mere worth of a few million dollars ticket to Moon?.... I could go talking like this for a long time, but now I will let you go on thinking this way. I think you will find your trip to Moon someday to have multiple benefits including those that no money can buy on Earth.
The money and resources spent on building the Moon SpaceBase must be 100 times more efficient, cost effective and long lasting compared with any building on Earth or in cosmic space, since there is no atmosphere or weather to corrode it, not even oxygen to oxidize it. So each penny spent on Moon is a penny saved. In a relatively short time, a village could be built on Moon. In fact even a city would not be too impossible. Ö We are lucky to have our satellite and our sister planet Moon. She is not only pretty to look at, but to us she is also the nearest space island that is a solid ground, an experimental planet, a stepping stone for us, if we are to go any places in our solar system, and then later, but not too much later, anywhere in our Milky galaxy. One thing should be said though. The universe belongs to all creatures in the universe. Also the sun and moon shine on all creatures on planet earth. In a few short millenniums or centuries from now, nature's evolution will advance some of our fellow earthlings, such as the chimps, dogs, cats, horses, dolphins and elephants, etc., to communicate and reveal lots more secrets of nature and life with us. They will yet be our true companions in space explorations. I believe one chimp has already gone up there before us. So no human nations should seek to monopolize any planets in our solar system. We are all children of the universe...
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